Duplicates Detection with ElasticSearch

» 28 March 2011 » In PHP, Tech »

As I mentioned on Twitter recently, duplicate detection (or de-duping) is one of the most unappreciated problems that the developers of certain types of applications face sooner or later. The applications I’m talking about share two main characteristics: item collection and some sort of social aspect. A prime example of this is Delicious. Users collect items (bookmarks), and, since multiple people can collect the same item (URL), there needs to be duplicate detection, so that it is possible to infer some information from the data, such as how many people saved a certain URL, what are the popular URLs of the day, etc.

In the case of URL bookmarking, de-duping is fairly easy, because usually a URL points to a unique piece of content, so grouping by the URL gives the desired result. There are some complications arising from redirections and URL shorteners, of course, but the general case is not difficult.

De-duping content that does not have a unique identifier for each item is more challenging. We ran into this while working on Mapalong, and I wanted to share the approach that we took to detect duplicates in our data.

Mapalong allows people to bookmark their favorite locations, and a placemark (what we call it) consists of a number of fields such as title, notes, tags, URL, geo coordinates, and a few more. Mapalong is a map-oriented product, and one of the ways to add a placemark is to simply zoom and drag the map to the location you want to add. Predictably, people are not always precise when they add the placemarks this way. The fields that are likely to be inconsistent are the title (e.g., The Invisible Dog versus The Invisible Dog Art Center) and the location.

The title varies, because people often just type the name in rather than copy their placemark from a known business listing. This also means they can misspell the title, use different punctuation, or give the place a title that is special to them rather than the canonical one (e.g., My first kiss instead of Mulholland Drive overlook).

The location variance is mostly due to two reasons: people’s recollection of the actual location may be wrong, and the places on the map occupy a certain area, so each person can bookmark it at a different point in that area (such as different entrances to the building, etc.). Extended places like the Google campus or a popular beach can contain multiple placemarks that are equally valid and should be treated as duplicates for some purposes.

I felt that the tags and notes fields could vary too much from one placemark to another to provide adequate matching, and decided to do duplicate detection based only on the title and location. The approach I took relies on ElasticSearch, which is a full-text search engine we use for Mapalong already. It has a powerful and fast query engine and supports geo-based search as well.

Obviously, matching the title exactly, even case-insensitively, was going to get me only halfway, due to the reasons indicated above. To deal with possible spelling errors, punctuation, and missing or extra words, I used the FuzzyLikeThis (FLT) query type, which is a combination of the MoreLikeThis query that retrieves documents similar to the given text and a Levenshtein-based fuzzy search.

To do the initial classification of places into duplicate groups, the basic algorithm is as follows:

  1. Loop through all the places.
  2. Use FLT + geo query to find places that are likely to be duplicates.
  3. Create a duplicate group from the current place and the matches.
  4. Mark these places as done, so that they don’t get added to another group.

Once the groups are built, the subsequent duplicate matching is done only when a user adds a new place; then we simply run the FLT + geo query, determine which duplicate group contains the majority of the results, and add the new place to that group.

FuzzyLikeThis has several useful tuning parameters:

max_query_terms
Specifies the maximum number of terms that will be included in the generated query
min_similarity
Excludes the terms that are too dissimilar
prefix_length
Enforces a common prefix on the fuzzified terms (which greatly affects the speed of the Levenshtein algorithm)

I experimented with different values for max_query_terms, but since the majority of the placemarks have titles of three words or less, the best results were obtained with max_query_terms set to 2. The prefix_length was set to 1, and min_similarity was left at the default of 0.5.

The FLT query can be run against multiple fields in the document. Initially, I tried matching the given text against title, notes, and tags, but there were too many false positives. In the end, I limited it to matching only on the title field.

Logically, the duplicates are likely to be fairly close to each other, so I applied the geo-distance filter to the FLT query matches and set the radius to be 50 meters (which might change, subject to testing).

The full FLT query looked like this:

{
    "query": {
        "filtered": {
            "query": {
                "fuzzy_like_this": {
                    "like_text": "Milk Bar",
                    "fields": [
                        "title"
                    ],
                    "max_query_terms": 2,
                    "prefix_length": 1
                }
            },
            "filter": {
                "geo_distance": {
                    "distance": 0.05,
                    "geo": {
                        "lat": 40.677795,
                        "lon": -73.968923
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    },
    "size": 60
}

With these settings, the initial results were encouraging. The grouping seemed to work well, including fuzzy titles, and there only a few false negatives, such as Grimaldi’s not being grouped with the places named Grimaldi’s Pizzeria. This turned out to be because of a too aggressive score cutoff; my first take counted only the matches with the score ≥1.0, but there were a few cases where valid results had scores below 1.0, so I relaxed the cutoff to be ≥0.5. With this change, the duplicate groups were 99% accurate, which was good enough for our purposes.

Below are some examples of the groups. The first line in a paragraph is the placemark that was used as the source for matching and each line in the group has the place ID, title, the match score, and the geo coordinates.

31: Gen
    31, Gen, 1.49, [40.677602, -73.96358]
   756, Gen, 1.49, [40.677602, -73.96358]
   141, Restaurant Gen Inc, 0.75, [40.677599, -73.96349]

33: Grimaldi's Pizzeria
    33, Grimaldi's Pizzeria, 1.41, [40.702677, -73.99350]
  1001, Grimaldi's Pizzeria, 1.41, [40.702677, -73.99350]
  2330, Grimaldi's Pizzeria, 1.41, [40.702677, -73.99350]
  1987, Grimaldi's, 0.52, [40.702702, -73.99345]
  2032, Grimaldi's, 0.52, [40.702677, -73.99350]

249: The Cock and Hoop
   249, The Cock and Hoop, 1.41, [52.951072, -1.14407]
  1102, The Cock and Hoop, 1.41, [52.951072, -1.14407]
  1128, The Cock & Hoop, 1.41, [52.950970, -1.14429]

897: Arnolfini bookshop
   897, Arnolfini bookshop, 1.41, [51.449433, -2.59744]
   921, Arnolfini Bookshop, 1.41, [51.449304, -2.59748]

1541: Powell's
  1541, Powell's, 1.50, [45.523022, -122.68136]
  1612, Powell's City of Books, 0.75, [45.522991, -122.68124]
  1895, Powell's City of Books, 0.75, [45.522987, -122.68123]

1542: Rogue Distillery and Pub House
  1542, Rogue Distillery and Pub House, 1.06, [45.525834, -122.68494]
  1597, Rogue Distillery and Public House, 1.06, [45.525848, -122.68504]
  1613, Rogue Distillery and Public House, 1.06, [45.525848, -122.68504]

My script was written in Python with pyes, but it would be very easy to write an equivalent one in PHP using the Elastica library, for example.

This is far from an exhaustive examination of the de-duplication issue, but I hope you can take away some ideas for how to deal with this problem in your product.

Update: @clintongormley correctly points out that max_query_terms actually specifies how many words from the beginning of the input text will be passed to the engine. I guess in our case most of the variation happens at the end of the titles, so passing the first 2 words worked fine. However, it might be better to change max_query_terms with the length of the title or just leave it at the default of 25.

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122 Comments on "Duplicates Detection with ElasticSearch"

  1. andrei
    Peter
    28/03/2011 at 1:50 pm Permalink

    Thanks for sharing this.

    A new place can also create a new dup group, right? What if a place belongs to two groups? How are you grouping?

    For tweet duplicate detection I’ve implemented a similar approach without the fuzzy part. But to further enhance duplicate precision I’ve used the jaccard index.

    It is also implemented with ElasticSearch now:

    https://github.com/karussell/Jetwick/blob/master/src/main/java/de/jetwick/es/ElasticTweetSearch.java#L972

  2. andrei
    Andrei
    28/03/2011 at 3:00 pm Permalink

    Excellent question, Peter. The post briefly mentions what I do for a new place, but I guess I should expand on it. When a new place is created, I do the same FLT + geo query and then look at the results to see which duplicate groups they belong to (if any) and give preference to the group with the most hits. For example, if place A is being added, the results may come back with places B, E, F, G, and J. If B, and E belong to dup group 1, and F, G, and J belong to dup group 2, A would be placed in group 2. If there is a tie, I pick a group with the closest centroid. If most of the results don’t have a duplicate group, then I create one and add them and the new place to it.

    Thank you for the Jaccard index reference – I’ll check it out to see whether it’s something I can use as well.

  3. andrei
    Peter
    29/03/2011 at 6:07 am Permalink

    Hi Andrei, thanks for your answer. Now I understand this a bit better :)

    Regarding the jaccard index I’m not sure … you would need to fuzzy each term before you can use it, otherwise it is too strict. (But maybe you could apply Lucene’s fuzzy algorithm directly to the terms in your app)

    In my case fuzzying would generate too many duplicates I think, so I am only stemming and calculating the j-index on the stemmed terms. But I’ll try it out in the near future. Thanks again for sharing this!

  4. andrei
    Dairon Medina
    29/03/2011 at 9:40 am Permalink

    Hi Andrei, nice post . I haved used lucene before with PHP but now im working on a python based social networking for organizing parties and event and that library sounds good. I will give it a try. Nice post and best reggards from Cuba,

    Dairon

  5. andrei
    Iftikhan Nazeem
    11/04/2011 at 12:59 am Permalink

    Andrei,

    Thank you for sharing. I wanted to point out that the link to ElasticSearch is specified as http://elasticsearch.com instead of http://elasticsearch.org.

  6. andrei
    Andrei
    11/04/2011 at 8:42 am Permalink

    Thank you. The .com is a redirect to .org, but I fixed the link anyway.

  7. andrei
    Nick Berry
    02/04/2012 at 12:01 pm Permalink

    I worked on a similar problem a decade ago when I had to merge/clean-up the restaurant/hotel/points-of-interest databases that were merged into Microsoft’s mapping products. Your posting brought lots of memories back.

    If I remember correctly, the entity sub-string that was the most popular was “BBQ”. It doesn’t take much thought to realize all the possible combinations of ways that “Bar-Be-Q”, and “Bar BQ” and “Barbeque” and “B-B-Q” with all possible combinations of punctuation.

    Also, many of the source materials give hint to their origin as hotel listings in printed directories. (Hotels entered in multiple ways with different combinations of word order “Hilton Heathrow”, “Heathrow Hilton”, “London Heathrow Hilton” … etc, as well as additional words to try and get them listed in other sections “Staines Hilton”, “Terminal 4 London Hilton”.

  8. andrei
    Dennis
    29/09/2012 at 11:36 pm Permalink

    Hi, once you have the items in groups, how do you go about querying for items and collapsing on the groups you have created?

  9. andrei
    Andrei
    30/09/2012 at 9:53 am Permalink

    The groups are stored in MongoDB in a separate collection. Each entry just lists the IDs of the places in the group. Querying is an easy $in operator, to find which group a given place belongs to.

  10. andrei
    Lars Marius Garshol
    02/03/2013 at 1:19 am Permalink

    It’s interesting to see what you chose to approach this problem by simply querying the search engine directly. I’m surprised your results seem so good, because generally this is a tricky problem, where information from many fields (name, address, phone number, geoposition) etc all need to be considered and weighed against one another.

    I had the same problem and chose to build a full record linkage engine on top of Lucene. That basically uses Lucene to find candidate matches (much like you do), but then does configurable detailed comparison with weighted Levenshtein, q-grams etc etc and combines results for different properties using Bayes’s Theorem. It also cleans and normalizes data before comparison.

    Even that requires a lot of tuning and work to produce good results, so, like I said, I’m surprised your results look so good. But maybe I’m missing something.

  11. andrei
    Andrei
    05/03/2013 at 7:52 pm Permalink

    Your project looks quite interesting, and I’m sure produces better quality results than my approach. I wish I had run across it at the time. But, I wanted to keep the number of pieces of technology as small as possible and using ElasticSearch was a quick & dirty approach that seemed to yield decent results.

  12. andrei
    pawelrychlik
    10/07/2013 at 4:24 am Permalink

    Andrei,
    I currently work on a quite similar problem with basically the same toolset. I’ve came across a problem of scoring relativity in elasticsearch – i.e. the score yielded by elasticsearch varies depending on e.g. the number of already processed & deduplicated documents (of course the relation here is much more complex).

    Situation A:
    You are at the very beginning of your deduping process. You have very few items in your deduplicated dataset. You take a new one (say X), search for its probable duplicates against your dataset. You get some results from ES, with e.g. the highest score being 0.5.

    Situation B:
    You are far into the deduping process of your data. You have a very large set of deduplicated items already. Again – you take a new one (the same X), search for its probable duplicates against your dataset. You get some results from ES, but the scoring is now on a completely different level – say 2.0.

    In your article you mentioned that you have a static score cut-off threshold = 0.5 (which you have refined to get better results).
    How can you determine what a score of 0.5 means without knowing the whole context of your data? Shouldn’t the cut-off point be evaluated at runtime based on some statistics or the like? Maybe you would get even better results when you set the score threshold to 0.5 at the very beginning of dedupe process, but push it towards e.g. 1.5 when you have broader amount of data?

  13. andrei
    Paweł Rychlik
    10/07/2013 at 4:25 am Permalink

    Andrei,
    I currently work on a quite similar problem with basically the same toolset. I’ve came across a problem of scoring relativity in elasticsearch – i.e. the score yielded by elasticsearch varies depending on e.g. the number of already processed & deduplicated documents (of course the relation here is much more complex).

    Situation A:
    You are at the very beginning of your deduping process. You have very few items in your deduplicated dataset. You take a new one (say X), search for its probable duplicates against your dataset. You get some results from ES, with e.g. the highest score being 0.5.

    Situation B:
    You are far into the deduping process of your data. You have a very large set of deduplicated items already. Again – you take a new one (the same X), search for its probable duplicates against your dataset. You get some results from ES, but the scoring is now on a completely different level – say 2.0.

    In your article you mentioned that you have a static score cut-off threshold = 0.5 (which you have refined to get better results).
    How can you determine what a score of 0.5 means without knowing the whole context of your data? Shouldn’t the cut-off point be evaluated at runtime based on some statistics or the like? Maybe you would get even better results when you set the score threshold to 0.5 at the very beginning of dedupe process, but push it towards e.g. 1.5 when you have broader amount of data?

  14. andrei
    Andrei
    11/07/2013 at 11:30 am Permalink

    @Paweł, in our product we never remove the duplicates from the corpus, because they are places entered by people and it wouldn’t be nice if we simply removed their data. We used the process described in the article to generate “clusters” of places that could potentially be duplicates of one another and to represented them as such on the map.

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    The digest includes statistical data on the state of
    affairs in each Canadian province: from overall
    revenues and quantitative characteristics on gambling
    businesses to revenue distribution and highly
    specialized data.

    The digest itself represents a nicely crafted document with dozens of tables, charts and trends that
    characterize the development of the industry. The Gambling Digest is released publically, and available for download on the official CPRG website.

    Casino Online And Brick & Mortar Establishments in Kahnawake

    Kahnawake is a Mohawk Indian Reservation in Canada. Due to the
    special status granted to Indian lands, many of them legally allowed to host gambling, which provided
    a good supplement to the local budget. Kahnawake Gaming
    Commission, responsible for the regulation in this area,
    was established in 1996, and within as little as 3 years
    it began to issue licenses for this type of business
    on the Internet. Being the pioneer of gaming
    industry niche, the jurisdiction has become one
    of the most well-known among phenomena of the kind.

    The Canadian KGC consists of three organizations assigned
    by Mohawk Council of Kahnawake. They are mandated to deal with all the regulation issues
    of online gambling, including licensing. A system of rules and standards
    that guides the commission is based on the experience
    of Australian colleagues. The basic principles of
    KGC are aimed at reduced to fair business conduction, transparency,
    data security and timely payouts.

    The Commission has developed the requirements, ensuring high reliability and excluding the
    possibility of fraud in online gambling business.
    When considering an application the agency examines the following aspects:

    the formal grounds for issuing the license
    the reliability and integrity of software
    the capital adequacy for timely payouts

    How Online Roulettes Appeared In Ontario

    With an eye on the successful experience of Quebec, Ontario government raised the question of
    further legalization of online gambling in the province.

    Taking drastic measures was dictated by Toronto budget deficit
    of CA$24.7 billion.

    Dalton McGuinty, the former Prime Minister of the province,
    proposed to fill the gap by raising taxes on the sale
    of alcohol. However, armed with a calculator and enlisted with the support of like-minded people, the Prime
    Minister gave the green light to local online gambling resources.

    The neighboring Quebec earned about CA$50 million annually from online gambling enterprises, Ontario, the largest Canadian province,
    could count on even larger revenue.

    ‘Legalization of gambling sites will benefit
    the entire province. Ontario residents annually spend up to CA$1.9 billion on gambling online, though
    the funds go to other regions and offshore sites’, Paul Godfrey, head of the Committee on gambling
    in Ontario, commented on the situation.

    Jeff Derevensky, the head of the International
    Centre that strives to limit gambling activities in Canada, indicated the young population was not ready for such global changes.

    However, the head of the center saw no particular obstacles to legalization: he offered to introduce a
    special course in local schools to protect the younger generation from the dangers of Internet gambling.

    Best Online Casino Platforms Bring Up The Champions

    The anthem of Canada sounded in Rio All-Suite Hotel and Casino in Las Vegas
    again and again as the six weeks poker season ended with a
    triumph of Canadian players, who managed to win 10 bracelets.
    In addition, Daniel Negreanu, a resident of Toronto, was so good in Australian and US competitions that earned the WSOP 2013 ‘Player of the year’ title.

    When in late June Kristen Bicknell from Ontario won the women’s tournament, it a new achievement has been recorded: the bracelets have been awarded
    to ten players from Canada, which is a huge progress after three
    bracelets received in 2012. The previous record of the country was
    six bracelets won in 2010.

    As usual, the majority of players represented at the WSOP were the U.S residents: 57,040 out of a total number of 79,471.
    Thus, 71.8 % of American players was more then enough to secure the leadership, as Canadian representation equaled as little as 5.2% (4,118 poker players).
    No surprise that the U.S. won a better part of WSOP bracelet in 2013 (41), almost two-thirds of the total number of awards and is slightly less than its percentage of participation.
    At the same time, ten Canadian bracelets represent 16.1% of awards,
    which is three times higher than the percentage of participation of the country.

    Daniel Negreanu Bonus Casino Rockstar According To GPI Rank

    In his address on Twitter, the Canadian resident, Daniel Negreanu, ranked the best poker player of the decade,
    wished his fans all the best and gave a little advice: ‘I hope that you will fulfill your dreams.
    Dream – declare – execute. The formula really works!’

    In the life of 39 -year-old Canadian pro this formula
    really works as clockwork, especially recollecting about his goals for 2013.
    Negreanu planned to enter the tournaments and win at least CA$1.5 million, grab his fifth WSOP bracelet in career and a find himself in the Top 10
    race Player of the year Bluff.

    It’s unbelievable, but Negreanu not only achieved his goals,
    but also exceed them dramatically (and yes, he managed to
    be ranked the player of the year by Bluff Magazine).

    The famous player won his bracelet in April, when he triumphed at the WSOP Asia-Pacific (APAC) Main Event and earned CA$ 1,087,
    160. In October, he was able also to duplicate the result, winning the competition of a high
    roller at the WSOP Europe, and get over CA$979,955.
    Along with other payments, during the year Negreanu
    one of the best players of Canadaso far collected winnings
    of CA$3,208,630 and the amount of his winnings throughout the career increased to CA$19,549,209.

    Mobile Casino

    Enhanced capabilities of information technology and personal gadgets fueled a breakthrough in the development of
    e-commerce sector. The brand-new opportunities contributed
    to drastic changes in all spheres of business, and gambling is no exception. Naturally the expansion of changes into the online segment adjusted the balance of power in the global gaming sector and deepened the conflict between ‘conservatives’ and
    ‘reformers’.

    According to Firebear Studio, a prominent IT company, global e-commerce
    market in 2014 was estimated at a trillion dollars,
    while its growth rate equaled 19.4% according to the research.

    Another investigation carried out by Goldman Sachs Group Inc.
    indicates that due to the increasing popularity of smartphones and tablets the concept of mobile commerce (m-commerce) acquires its relevance.
    According Firebear Studio, last year the number of transactions from
    mobile devices grew up to 18% of all purchases on the web.
    The percentage of operating on mobile devices has increased
    from 38% in 2012 to 53% in 2014.

    This direction couldn’t have left online gambling untouched,
    which is evidenced by comprehensive researches of the
    authoritative H2 Gambling Capital and iGaming Business.

    Online market is not consolidated and it is being developed still.
    Until now, there is even no single terminological apparatus: the same phenomenon called different companies in different ways.
    The concept of ‘online gambling’ causes misunderstandings.
    H2 Gambling Capital and iGaming Business, for example, referred to as the entire online gaming market segment, First Gaming distinguishes it from mobile segment.
    Others, such as The European Lotteries Association and
    Scientific Games, do not refer online lotteries to this notion.
    Nevertheless, the industry is rocketing.

    H2 Gambling Capital and iGaming Business projected the total revenue from online gambling winnings (including betting) in 2014 amounted
    to C$30,6 Bln. According to the study, the total income of the global
    online gaming industry will grow from C$6,6 billion 2003 to C$
    32,5 billion in 2015-m and C$42,8 billion 2018.
    By that time, in terms of profitability Europe will continue to lead, although the gap with
    other continents will be reduced, especially with Asia.

    A doubling of revenues from online gambling in the
    United States is expected.

    Betting will retain its leading position on the Internet, but will gradually show a slowdown. In this
    case, the yield is expected to increase the online casino,
    which by 2018 will also double their performance.
    Such growth will be observed in all sectors, except for online
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  110. つらい便秘改善には、ミネラルウォーターを飲むことです。特に朝目覚めたらコップ一杯ある新鮮なお水をカラダに吸収すると、胃腸が活動しはじめて便秘改善になります。水はおおよそとして一日、2リットルは飲みましょう。水はお茶やジュースでなくミネラルウォーターを飲みましょう。朝、オリゴ糖サプリを大さじ一杯飲むのも胃腸の動きを活発にします。

  111. 無実の罪で極刑が決まった兄バローズを救うために、弟マイケル・スコフィールドがわざと刑務所に入り、一緒に脱獄をするストーリーです。しかし、脱獄した後のストーリーがまた最高で、常時ハラハラさせられるので数時間観ていても飽きませんよ。
    シーズン1~4までありますが、脱獄までを描いたシーズン1、天才FBIのマホーンからの逃走を描くシーズン2が傑作です。見てほしい点は盛り沢山ですが、やはり登場人物の個性が目を引きます。そして、いきなり準主役が死んだりするので、目が離せません。
    特にバッグウェル、通称T-Bag。彼はもう、演技が最高すぎます。おそらく彼が演じていなければ、ここまで印象に残る登場人物にはならなかったはず。役柄は子供数人をレイプ殺人したという最も嫌われる凶悪犯ですが、どこか憎めず、シーズン1からシーズン4の最終話までずっと出番のある数少ない一人です。

  112. andrei
    ポケモンGO
    25/08/2016 at 2:13 am Permalink

    俺はスマートフォンゲームはこれまで実践したことがなかったんですが、ポケモンGOの記事などを見て、初めてスマートフォンでのゲームをやることにしました。スマホゲームにお金を払うなんて…、と現在までは考えていましたが、課金し続けている状況です…。最後にはいくら支払うことになるのやら…。

  113. andrei
    航空機 格安チケット
    29/08/2016 at 1:57 am Permalink

    私もぴんと来ることがありますね。正確に情報を知っているのと知らないのとでは、それがもたらす効果は半端なく違ってくるとは分かっていたつもりでしたが、それが航空チケットに対しても当たるとは意識していませんでしたね。安上りな航空券に対して、一括で比べるホームページを最近使用していたのですが、本当はまともに買った方がお安くなると気付いた時は驚がくでした。こういったことは、なんで誰一人教えてくれないのでしょうね~。

  114. andrei
    所沢 脱毛 安い
    10/09/2016 at 9:24 pm Permalink

    昔と比較すれば、ワキ脱毛もハードルが低くなりました。どうしてかというと、ワキ脱毛を脱毛の第一段階的な位置づけにしており、何はともあれリーズナブルに体験してもらおうと計画しているからです。

  115. andrei
    岩見沢市 セフレ募集
    21/09/2016 at 7:44 am Permalink

    Why viewers still use to read news papers when in this technological globe the whole thing
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